INTRODUCTION: Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is an isolated focal dystonia characterized by laryngeal spasms during voluntary voice production. Environmental factors have been assumed to play a role in SD pathophysiology; however, the exact extrinsic risk factors and their association with neural alterations remain unknown. METHODS: A total of 186 SD patients and 85 healthy controls completed a structured 177-question survey, consisting of questions on general biographical information, medical history, symptomatology of dystonia. Data were imputed in a stepwise regression model to identify extrinsic risk factors for SD. In addition, functional MRI data from a subset of this cohort were analyzed to determine brain activation abnormalities associated with the SD extrinsic risk. RESULTS: We found that (1) recurrent upper respiratory infections, gastroesophageal reflux, and neck trauma, all of which influence sensory feedback from the larynx, represent extrinsic risk factors, likely triggering the manifestation of SD symptoms, and (2) neural alterations in the regions necessary for sensorimotor preparation and integration are influenced by an extrinsic risk in susceptible individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence for the extrinsic risk in SD development and demonstrate the link with alterations in the sensorimotor preparatory network that collectively contribute to the multifactorial pathophysiology of SD.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the directionality of regional interactions and influences of one region on another within the functionally abnormal sensorimotor network in isolated focal dystonia. METHODS: A total of 40 patients with spasmodic dysphonia with and without dystonic tremor of voice and 35 healthy controls participated in the study. Independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state fMRI was used to identify 4 abnormally coupled brain regions within the functional sensorimotor network in all patients compared to controls. Follow-up spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM) estimated regional effective connectivity between patients and controls and between patients with spasmodic dysphonia with and without dystonic tremor of voice to expand the understanding of symptomatologic variability associated with this disorder. RESULTS: ICA found abnormally reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex, putamen, and bilateral premotor cortex in all patients compared to controls, pointing to a largely overlapping pathophysiology of focal dystonia and dystonic tremor. DCM determined that the disruption of the sensorimotor network was both top-down, involving hyperexcitable parieto-putaminal influence, and interhemispheric, involving right-to-left hyperexcitable premotor coupling in all patients compared to controls. These regional alterations were associated with their abnormal self-inhibitory function when comparing patients with spasmodic dysphonia patients with and without dystonic tremor of voice. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal hyperexcitability of premotor-parietal-putaminal circuitry may be explained by altered information transfer between these regions due to underlying deficient connectivity. Identification of brain regions involved in processing of sensorimotor information in preparation for movement execution suggests that complex network disruption is staged well before the dystonic behavior is produced by the primary motor cortex.
The basal ganglia are a complex subcortical structure that is principally involved in the selection and implementation of purposeful actions in response to external and internal cues. The basal ganglia set the pattern for facilitation of voluntary movements and simultaneous inhibition of competing or interfering movements. In addition, the basal ganglia are involved in the control of a wide variety of non-motor behaviors, spanning emotions, language, decision making, procedural learning, and working memory. This review presents a comparative overview of classic and contemporary models of basal ganglia organization and functional importance, including their increased integration with cortical and cerebellar structures.